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奇怪的人:身在底层,却具有统治阶级的意识 ZT

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发表于 2020-10-9 10:57:30 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
奇怪的人:身在底层,却具有统治阶级的意识

林语堂:“中国就有这么一群奇怪的人, 本身是最底阶层, 利益每天都在被损害,却具有统治阶级的意识。在动物世界里找这么弱智的东西都几乎不可能。”

第一个故事:自由

清末,法国使臣罗杰斯对中国皇帝说:“你们的太监制度将健康人变成残疾,很不人道。”没等皇帝回话,贴身太监姚勋抢嘴道——“这是陛下的恩赐,奴才们心甘情愿。怎可诋毁我大清国律,干涉我大清内政!?”

大清国人人有病。什么病?做了奴隶而不知道自己是奴隶,还以为自由是病态的。林语堂先生曾说过,中国有一类人,身处社会最底层却有着统治阶级的思想。

第二个故事:权利

十八个世纪,德国皇帝威廉一世曾在波茨坦建立了一座行宫。一次,他住进了行宫,登高远眺波茨坦市的全景,但他的视线却被一座磨坊挡住了。皇帝大为扫兴。这座磨坊“有碍观瞻”。他派人与磨坊主去协商,打算买下这座磨坊,以便拆除。

不想,磨坊主坚决不卖,理由很简单:这是我祖上世代留下来的,不能败在我手里无论多少钱都不卖!皇帝大怒,派出卫队,强行将磨房拆了。

倔犟的磨坊主向法院提起了诉讼。让人惊讶的是,法院居然判皇帝败诉。并判决皇帝在原地按原貌重建这座磨坊,并赔偿磨坊主的经济损失。皇帝服从地执行了法院的判决,重建了这座磨坊。

数十年后,威廉一世与磨坊主都相继去世。磨坊主的儿子因经营不善而濒临破产。他写信给当时的皇帝威廉二世,自愿将磨坊出卖给他。威廉二世接到这封信后,感慨万千。

他认为磨坊之事关系到国家的司法独立和审判公正的形象。它是一座丰碑,成为德国司法独立和裁判公正的象征,应当永远保留。便亲笔回信,劝其保留这座磨坊,以传子孙。并赠给了他6000马克,以偿还其所欠债务。小磨坊主收到回信后,十分感动。决定不再出售这座磨坊,以铭记这段往事。

正如十八世纪中叶英国首相威廉·皮特所说:“即使是最穷的人,在他的小屋里也敢于对抗国王的权威。屋子可能很破旧,屋顶可能摇摇欲坠;但风能进,雨能进,国王不能进,他的千军万马也不敢跨过这间破房子的门槛。

人最自由、自主、安全和独立的时候是在被称为家的房子里,如果连这一栖身之地都不是自己所有的,人到哪里去寻求和确保自己的独立自主安全和幸福了?

财政权是其它权利的基础和保障,也是人类自由和尊严的根基。财政权使个人权利具体化,从而在根本上限制了政府对个人权利的侵犯。


第三个故事:良知

这个故事发生在柏林墙倒塌之后的德国。1991年9月,统一后的柏林法庭上,举世瞩目的柏林围墙守卫案将要开庭宣判。这次接受审判的是4个年轻人,30岁都不到,他们曾经是柏林墙的东德守卫。

两年前一个冬夜里,刚满20岁的克利斯和一个好朋友,名叫高定,一起偷偷攀爬柏林墙企图逃向自由。几声枪声响,一颗子弹由克利斯前胸穿入,高定的脚踝被另一颗子弹击中。克利斯很快就断了气。他不知道,他是这堵墙下最后一个遇难者。那个射杀他的东德卫兵,叫英格·亨里奇。当然他也绝没想到,短短九个月之后,围墙被柏林人推到,而自己最终会站在法庭上因为杀人罪而接受审判。

柏林法庭最终的判决是:判处开枪射杀克利斯的卫兵英格·亨里奇三年半徒刑,不予假释。他的律师辩称,他们仅仅是执行命令的人,根本没有选择的权利,罪不在己。

法官当庭指出:“东德的法律要你杀人,可是你明明知道这些唾弃XX而逃亡的人是无辜的,明知他无辜而杀他,就是有罪。

作为警察,不执行上级命令是有罪的,但是打不准是无罪的。作为一个心智健全的人,此时此刻,你有把枪口抬高一厘米的主权,这是你应主动承担的良心义务。”

在这个世界上,良知是最高的准则,是不允许用任何借口来无视的。自然法永远高于社会法。

http://www.weibo.com/ttarticle/p/show?id=2309634478909293920725

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 楼主| 发表于 2020-10-13 00:27:42 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Reader86 于 2020-10-17 06:06 PM 编辑

瘦舟 发表于 2020-8-25 05:31 PM

以读者妹妹的博学,不应该不知道马克思的一句名言:任何社会里占统治地位的意识必定是统治阶级的意识。 ...

瘦舟如是说。

我再想想。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-10-17 18:15:07 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Reader86 于 2020-10-17 07:36 PM 编辑

老马可能是并不理解资本主义,因此他要社会主义。

“任何社会里占统治地位的意识必定是统治阶级的意识。 ”

不同意老马的这句话。因为现在,美国这个社会什么意识占统治地位?

这个问题其实是,大多数普通人心里想的是什么?

或者大多数人普通人心中的潜意识是什么。

前者,自由民主平等。

后者,挣多钱,过好日子。


大多数统治阶级心里想的是什么?

或者大多数人统治阶级心中的潜意识是什么。

前者:控制人,要多选票。

后者,好人:把国家的问题处理好,不捅娄子;坏人:怎么用国家的利益换取一些私人利益。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-10-21 10:43:44 | 显示全部楼层
老马在《资本论》中说什么里生产力和生产价值。

他把工人和体力劳动算进生产力和生产力和生产价值。可是资本家的脑力劳动他没有算进去。因此剩余价值。

如果把资本家的脑力劳动算进去, 就不会有剩余价值, 不会有剥削。
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 楼主| 发表于 2021-2-13 15:00:23 | 显示全部楼层
Former East German guards charged in Berlin Wall shooting

http://www.tampabay.com/archive ... rlin-wall-shooting/

Published Oct. 13, 2005

Four former East German border guards have been arrested and charged with manslaughter for carrying out the ousted Communist regime's "shoot-to-kill" policy at the Berlin Wall, justice officials said Saturday. The guards were charged in connection with the shooting of Chris Geoffroy, the last person killed fleeing from East Berlin to the West in February 1989, nine months before the wall was breached.

Berlin justice department spokeswoman Jutta Burghart said the four, accused of manslaughter and attempted manslaughter, were the first to be charged in connection with East Berlin's order that anyone trying to flee the country could be shot.

They were arrested Friday and charged Saturday, Burghart said.

Geoffroy, a 20-year-old waiter from East Berlin, was killed and his friend Christian Gaudin, also 20, was wounded when border guards fired on them as they tried to flee over the wall to West Berlin.

Nearly 200 people were killed trying to flee East Germany, either over the Berlin Wall, built in 1961, or across the inner-German border. The border vanished when East and West Germany united last October.

Burghart said the four former guards were all in their mid-20s. She identified them only as Andreas K., Peter Sch., Mike Sch. and Ingo H.
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No date had been set for a trial, she said.

She said the men's identities had been known to officials since late 1990, when an arrest warrant was issued for former East German leader Erich Honecker.

The warrant against Honecker, who issued the shoot-to-kill command, accused him of incitement to commit manslaughter.

But Honecker was given refuge at a Soviet army hospital in eastern Germany where he could not be arrested. He was spirited away to the Soviet Union this year.

Four other leading East German Communists, including former Prime Minister Willi Stoph and former defense minister Heinz Kessler, were arrested in May on charges similar to those against Honecker.

Officials have said Honecker's "escape" could make it harder to convict the people who carried out his orders.
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 楼主| 发表于 2021-2-13 15:02:42 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Reader86 于 2021-2-13 03:06 PM 编辑

2 East German Guards Convicted Of Killing Man as He Fled to West

http://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/ ... e-fled-to-west.html

By Stephen Kinzer

    Jan. 21, 1992

This is a digitized version of an article from The Times’s print archive, before the start of online publication in 1996. To preserve these articles as they originally appeared, The Times does not alter, edit or update them.

Occasionally the digitization process introduces transcription errors or other problems; we are continuing to work to improve these archived versions.

In a case that raised far-reaching political and moral questions, two former East German border guards were convicted today of having shot and killed a fleeing refugee in February 1989.

The verdict set a legal precedent, establishing that officials from what was once the Communist state of East Germany could be punished for actions that were not only legal under East German law, but which were compulsory for them to carry out.

The defendant accused of firing the fatal shots, 27-year-old Ingo Heinrich, told the court "at that time I was following the laws and commands of the German Democratic Republic."

But the judge, Theodor Seidel, said as he pronounced the sentences, "Not everything that is legal is right."

Mr. Heinrich was sentenced to three and a half years in prison on a charge of manslaughter. He was ruled to have fired the shot that killed 20-year-old Chris Gueffroy as Mr. Gueffroy dashed across the "death strip" that separated East and West Berlin.

Mr. Gueffroy was the last of an estimated 200 East Germans who were killed as they sought to flee westward in the 28 years that the Berlin wall divided this city. One Gets Suspended Term

Nine months after his death, the wall was opened, and East Germans were allowed to begin traveling freely. The opening of the wall was the most dramatic event in the upheaval that brought about the ouster of the Communist Government in East Germany and the unification of East and West Germany.

The second guard convicted today, Andreas Kuhnpast, 27, was given a two-year suspended sentence for attempted manslaughter. Two other defendants, who the judge ruled "did not kill and did not intend to kill," were acquitted.

Karin Gueffroy, mother of the victim, refused to comment as she left the courtroom. In her testimony this month, Mrs. Gueffroy had described her son's death as "not premeditated murder, but still murder."

In the five-month trial, in which sessions were held once or twice a week, defense lawyers argued that their clients had shot at Mr. Gueffroy in compliance with a shoot-to-kill order approved by senior East German officials. They said that those officials, not the young sharpshooters assigned to guard the border, should be held responsible for Mr. Gueffroy's death.

Judge Seidel acknowledged that the defendants were "at the end of a long chain of responsibility," but said they had violated "a basic human right" by shooting at someone whose only crime was trying to emigrate.

The principle that citizens must not violate basic moral principles, even if the violations are endorsed by law, was established by German courts in trials of former Nazis in the late 1940's and the 1950's.

"At the end of the 20th century," Judge Seidel said today, "no one has the right to ignore his conscience when it comes to killing people on behalf of the power structure."

After the sentences were announced, Herbert Dreyling, one of the lawyers for the former border guards, said outside the courtroom that comparing the East German regime to the Nazi era was "improper." The lawyers said they would appeal the convictions.

All four defendants had expressed remorse for their role in Mr. Gueffroy's death. One of them, Mr. Kuhnpast, broke down in tears during his testimony.

A second trial of border guards accused of involvement in killing an East German as he tried to flee westward began last month. Prosecutors are preparing charges against more than 300 other guards.

Public debate over these trials has centered around the fact that senior East German officials have thus far escaped punishment for their roles in the killings, as well as for other crimes. Many who comment on the case have repeated a German saying, "The little guys hang while the big guys go free."

Much public anger is focused on Erich Honecker, the 79-year-old former East German leader, who is believed to have approved the shoot-to-kill order issued to border guards. Mr. Honecker fled to Moscow before he could be brought to trial and is now under diplomatic protection at the Chilean Embassy there.

The man who headed East Germany's security service, Erich Mielke, is 84 years old and ailing. In an interview published this week, he described himself as "fatally ill" and suffering from depression.

Other former East German officials who have thus far succeeded in avoiding prosecution include Markus Wolf, the onetime espionage chief, and Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski, a shadowy money trader. Many Germans say they believe that both men are guilty of serious crimes, and express anger that they have managed to remain free while low-ranking soldiers face jail terms. 2 Ex-Officials on Trial

Two mid-level figures who long served the East German Government, however, are now on trial in separate cases. One, Klaus Kuron, was a counter-intelligence expert in West Germany who is accused of having been a double agent. He is facing treason charges at a court in Dusseldorf.

In the eastern city of Dresden, former Mayor Wolfgang Berghofer is on trial for his role in falsifying the results of local elections in 1989. Two men who briefly ruled East Germany after Mr. Honecker's ouster, Hans Modrow and Egon Krenz, are also under investigation concerning election frauds.

Officials in Bonn have said they are unable to bring charges against many former East German officials because their crimes, though serious, are not specifically punishable under the existing legal code.
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